adalat-systemadalat-system

Adalat System, By the middle of the 18th century, the company maintained its dominance in only three Presidency Towns of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.As time passed, the company Expanded its political activities and brought new areas around Presidency Town under its control.This area came to be known as ‘Mofussil’.

Administrative system in Mofussil and Adalat system came into existence for the administration of justice.The company’s first regional acquisitions included Bengal, Bihar, and Odisha.

The first court system here was introduced in 1772.over time,The primary system was revised, reformed and redefined. Later, the court,The system was also introduced in the Mofussils of Bombay and Madras.The rise and progress of the court system was practically followed in these areas Same as Bengal.

Grant of Diwani | Adalat System

Grand of diwani
Grand of Diwani

Batte of Plassey | Adalat System

The growing power of Britishers,nawab ordered to stop extending territories so in 1756 nawab Siraj-ud-daula attacked and captured Calcutta and turned out the Britishers.

As a consequence battle of Plassey happened on 23rd June 1757 in which nawab was defeated under the British leadership of Robert Clive.Now the Company became the supreme power in Bengal. It however installed Mir Jafar as Nawab, leaving the civil government to him.

Battle of Buxar | Adalat System

After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, Mir Jafar succeeded Siraj-ud-daula as the Nawab of Bengal.After becoming the new Nawab of Bengal, the British made Mir Jafar their puppet.Mir Jafar did not like this and tried to oppose the British with the support of the Dutch East India Company.The British caught his plot.

In this context, the British supported the appointment of Mir Qasim (Mir Jafar’s son-in-law) as the new Nawab, and Mir Jafar abdicated in favor of Mir Qasim under Company pressure.

An able ruler, Mir Qasim understood the true British intentions and therefore organized a protest with the combined forces of the Mughal Emperor and the Nawab of Awadh. This led to the Battle of Buxar in 1764.
Now the company became sovereign.the nominal Mughal emperor Shah Alam granted to the company the diwani of Bengal,Bihar and Orissa.the company agreed to pay annually 26 lakh rupees to the emperor.

Significance of Diwani | Adalat System

After the defeat of the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of oudh and the Confederate army of the Mughal Emperor, the English East India Company was certainly in an advantageous position.

Robert Clive made a pact with the Mughal emperor and agreed to return Kara and Allahabad to him.In return, Shah Alam II granted the civil rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the English East India Company on an annual payment of 26 lakh rupees. Robert Clive received a civil grant from Shah Alam II on behalf of the English East India Company.


The importance of civil grants lies first of all in the fact that earlier there was no legal recognition of the East India Company’s authority over the Nawab of Bengal.The company was forcibly enjoying political and economic rights.

But with the civil grant, the rights of the company were now established on a legal basis.Secondly, since the British had now come to control the finances of Bengal, they no longer had to depend on the money supply from England for trade in India.
Thirdly, the people of Bengal suffered greatly as a result of the partial takeover of civil ceremonies by the East India Company.

Execution of Diwani Functions | Adalat System

Although the transfer of the civil to the company was obtained by Clive,The actual collection of revenue they utilized the services of the natives. Therefore, the administration of civil works was left to the already running indigenous machinery.

Clive appointed two prominent natives-Mohammed Raza Khan,Murshidabad in Patna and Raja Shitab Roy to control the working of the system.Two different English officers were also appointed at both the places to oversee the working of these local officials.

This arrangement proved to be a disaster.No one was taking responsibility for the conduct of the government and it created chaos.
To improve matters, Governor Verelst appointed servants of the Company:
This plan of supervising observers in the districts, however, failed due to several factors and the situation in Bengal continued to deteriorate.

Related Post

Important Questions | Adalat System

What was the ‘Mofussil’ ?

the company Expanded its political activities and brought new areas around Presidency Town under its control.This area came to be known as ‘Mofussil’.

When battle of Plassey happened ?

battle of Plassey happened on 23rd June 1757 .

When battle of Buxar happened ?

battle of Buxar happened in 1764.

Explain the Significance of diwani ?

After the defeat of the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of oudh and the Confederate army of the……

Explain the Execution of diwani ?

Although the transfer of the civil to the company was obtained by Clive,The actual collection of revenue they utilized the services of the natives. Therefore, the administration of civil works was left to the already running indigenous machinery……

Refrences Book

  • Indian legal and constitutional history by Dr. N. V. Paranjape
  • A.B. Keith, Constitutional History of India
  • M. Rama Jois, Legal and Constitutional History of India
  • M.P. Jain, Outlines of India Legal History
  • V.D. Kulshrestha, Landmarks in Indian Legal History
  • Rankin G.C. Background to Indian Law

Sources

  1. https://www.epw.in

By Brijpal Singh

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